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The “monagon” V-spring catapult (4th c. B.C.)

It was a powerful stone-throwing catapult that was first used by the Macedonian army of Philip II. It consisted of a powerful wooden frame and one long beam whose utmost end was supported by a torsion spring, the “neura” and the other utmost end had a leather belt where the launch stone was placed. The torsion springs were comprised of twisted ropes from animal sinews or women’s hair. The beam was cocked with a rope wound around an axle, which was turned with the help of hand levers, and was secured via a suspension wheel. Its rapid release, as well as the stone’s launch, was achieved with the help of a special claw. The monagon catapult was gradually replaced by the catapults with two elbows, which ensured more accurate shots. It reappeared in the Roman era where a regression also in this sector is observed.

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