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The vaginal speculum (colposcope) (4th c. B.C.)

The medical gynecological instrument was invented in the 4th century B.C. and was used to dilate the vagina, enabling the doctor to exam the vagina and cervix or even treat an abscess.
It consisted of three plungers that formed a cylindrical tube of variable cross section, which dilated the vagina. The instrument was attached to two modular forceps; the clockwise rotation of a spiry cam handle elevated the two sliding parts of the two plungers (which were hinged on the edged of a moving part resembling a nut and allowed the radial opening of the plungers and, therefore, the dilation of the vagina. at the end of the examination, the plungers closed radially with a counterclockwise rotation of the handle and the tool was removed. The two plungers were often mounted in two sliding parts, and the third plunger was mounted in a ruler. Such a colposcope was found in 1993 during excavations in Dion (on the foothills of Mount Olympus by the Professor Dimitrios Pantermalis, and is on display at the local archaeological museum.

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