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Τhe sub-divided wheel of Philon – variation of “tympanon” (3rd c. B.C.)

It was a machine used for pumping water of small difference in altitude. It consisted of a rotating narrow construction, the “tympanon”, internally divided into eight radial triangular parts. An opening corresponded to each triangular part in its circumference for the inflow of pumped water when it was at the lower point in its course and a hole at the top for the outflow of trapped water when it was at the higher point. A built-in on the “tympanon” treadmill or radial water-driven wings were used to initiate the pump. There was also the possibility of a reverse use of the mechanism as a power generator.

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