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The hydraulic endless screw of Archimedes (3rd c. B.C.)

It is a mechanism (which Archimedes studied and improved) suitable for pumping water with large supply but a small difference in altitude, which is still used today for transporting fluids or granular materials.
It consisted of a wooden shaft that had convolutions (curves) of thin and flexible willow or wicker branches (one stuck on top of the other) so that an endless screw was created.
The screw worked within a wooden pipe. The device was placed in the water with an inclination of 30 degrees. Rotating the screw, using a connected drum with a walking worker on top (early implementation) or by hand using a crank (later implementation), the water (trapped within its coils) rose and flowed from the mouth of the pipe.

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