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The moving of heavy loads (stones) appears as early as the 5th millennium B.C. with the impressive megalithic structures in Western Europe, and later takes on epic dimensions with colossal construction projects of the first great civilisations (Egyptian etc.). However, concerning horizontal shifting, the traction on a specially shaped ramp using levers, ropes and sleds required synchronised manpower. The impressive structures of the Mycenaeans belong to this category, with the giant wall-gate lintels and vaulted tombs.
The greatest revolution, also in this sector, was brought about by the Greeks (6th c. B.C.) with the invention of the pulley and its use in various block and tackles (such as the two-wheeled pulleys, three-wheeled pulleys etc. for the doubling, tripling etc. exertion of force) in conjunction with the invention and application of various types of winches for the increased exertion of force according to the ratio of the length of the driving lever arms to the radius of the traction rope reel. The invention and development of multiple hoisting machines, such as the onemast crane, the two-mast crane (today’s gantry), four-mast crane (today’s scaffolds), etc. in combination with the use of clever stone fastening methods, impressive methods of braking and suspension, lubrication and special sliders, rollers and suitably wheeled vehicles led to the Greek architectural marvel.
Modern lifting technology is the direct evolution of the impressive lifting technology of the ancient Greeks, by which great Greek engineers such as Archimedes, Heron, Pappus etc. theoretically occupied themselves.

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