Introduction

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Introduction


The offer of the ancient Greek to mathematics was immense. In geometry the solving of problems by using only ruler and compass led to the development of the geometric algebra and the foundations of the Euclidean geometry taught unchanged until today. They were introduced concepts such as the analysis, the synthesis, the induction as scientific methods. During the Hellenistic period a kind of trigonometry was developed with the help of detailed tables of chords of the circumference a cycle. It was devised a method of differentiation in a rectangular or non-rectangular coordinate system for troubleshooting in extreme values. They were discovered the integration methods for the calculation of specific sizes, volumes, lengths and weight centres. For solving equations of 3rd and 4th grade they were used ingenious mechanical structures (kinematic geometry) as Plato's cubist, Ptolemy's mesolabe and Nicomedes' trisector (through conchoid).