EXHIBITS > The elevating mechanisms of the ancient Greeks >
Clamps, wedges and "empolia"
For the secure horizontal fitting of adjacent stones bronze or iron clamps in the form of I were usually used that were placed in corresponding curved sockets of stones and were stabilised and protected with the smelting of lead. For their constant vertical fitting "wedges" were used, that is bronze or iron laminas, which were placed in a similar manner. For the secure connection of the vertebras of the pillars the "empolia" (meaning wooden elements of square cross-section that were placed in corresponding square notches in the centre of the vertebras) were used . "Empolia" had apertures in their centre which were connected between them with the "pole", one vertical little axle, allowing the free rotation of the vertebras.
SOURCES: "A. Orlandos, The materials of structure of ancient Greeks (I & II)", "Manolis Korres, From Penteli to the Parthenon"