The ''keras'' or ''bykani'' (horn)

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The ''keras'' or ''bykani'' (horn)

It was a natural trumpet (also known as the poor man's trumpet) that was created from the horn of an animal. It was mainly used by shepherds and armies for the transmission of messages.

It consisted of a perforated conical horn from which the bone core was removed and then baked in order to improve its sonority. The sound was produced with direct blow in the hole and the suitable lip technique.

SOURCES: "M.L. West, Ancient Greek Music", "Plutarch, Histories", "Aristotle, Natural Hearing".